I’m happy being at “level 5 reproducibility” for most FOSS free & open-source software
projects. What concerns me more is APIs are forever.

  • -1: not reproducible
  • 0: reproducible only by you, today
  • 1: reproducible by others, with your guidance
  • 2: reproducible by others, today
  • 3: reproducible by others
  • 4: reproducible by others, without internet access (package all deps into one binary so no reliance on pip/conda repos)
    • personally I question this. There’s no problem relying on tqdm==4.64.0 being always available on PyPI The Python Package Index
      servers IMO. I’d prefer defining “level 4” as “no need to read installation instructions – it’s obvious just pip install thing[all] is needed”. AFAIK truly packaging all deps into one binary is level 5 (below)
  • 5: reproducible with Docker
  • 6: reproducible with a VM virtual machine
    (wrapping Docker in a VM)
    • I’d question the value-added of this wrapping
  • 7: reproducible on untouched hardware (VM on air-gapped physical hardware kept physically locked)
    • preparing for armageddon, are we?